gcov is a code coverage analysis tool, useful for determining which lines of code got executed, and how many times. It is part of the GNU compiler suite, so is free. It has a man page for general reference. gcov is advertised to work only with the GNU compilers. Use with other compilers is not guaranteed. The following describes in step by step fashion how it can be used in the JEDI UFO bundle to get coverage analysis for CRTM files. Note that this analysis only involves Fortran files, so further action to include C/C++ files will be required.
1. Edit the top level CMakeLists.txt file, add the line
link_libraries( gcov )
2. Edit appropriate files starting with “compile_Flags_GNU*.cmake”, add the flags
-fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage so those flags will be added to the compilation
of files you want gcov to analyze.
3. Run the appropriate ecbuild command. gcov documentation strongly recommends unoptimized compilation, so a debug JEDI build accomplishes this.
Do the run you want gcov to analyze, using ctest or other means.
5. cd to where the .o files live that you want to profile: For my CRTM analysis this was:
% cd build_gcc_debug_shared/crtm/libsrc/CMakeFiles/crtm.dir
In this directory there should be a number of files ending in gcda and gcno. These were created during the run as a result of the flags added in step 2 above.
6. Unfortunately, at least for CRTM, the JEDI compilation command does not use standard naming for .o files, e.g. instead of CRTM_x.f90 compiling to CRTM_x.o, it actually compiles to CRTM_X.f90.o This confuses gcov, so we need to rename the gcov-specific files which were created by the run so that when gcov is run, it will find what it is looking for. To get around this problem, you may wish to use a script such as this to provide soft link names that gcov understands:
for i in $(ls *.f90.gcda *.f90.gcno); do newname=$(echo $i | sed -e 's/\.f90\././1') if [ ! -f $newname ]; then ln -s $i $newname; fi done
7. Next, gcov needs the source files to live in this same directory as the .o files just mentioned, which unfortunately they do not. For CRTM, one way to get around this is to do the following (still in the directory where the .o files live):
% ln -s ../../../../../crtm/libsrc/*f90 .
Now (in the same directory) run gcov to get the analysis:
% gcov *f90
The output files ending in
.gcov contain the annotated source. Lines
#### were never executed. Lines starting with a number
indicate the number of times that line got executed. Lines starting with
- indicate that no executable code exists at that line.